Aircraft – Contaminated Cabin Air – Aerotoxic Syndrome
The Nature of Particulates in Aircraft Bleed Air Resulting from Oil Contamination – 2017 Byron W. Jones, PhD, PE Shahin Nayyeri Amiri, PhD Jake W. Roth Fellow ASHRAE
Aerotoxic Syndrome: A new occupational disease? – 2017 Published by WHO – Susan Michaelis, Jonathan Burdon, C. Vyvyan Howard School of Health Sciences, University of Stirling, United Kingdom Consultant Respiratory Physician, Melbourne, Australia
The Aetiology of ‘Aerotoxic Syndrome’- A Toxico- Pathological Viewpoint. C V Howard, S Michaelis, A Watterson 1Centre for Molecular Biosciences, University of Ulster, UK Occupational and Environmental Health Research Group, University of Stirling, UK
Crew Effects from Toxic Exposures on Aircraft C. Winder (u) · S. Michaelis School of Safety Science, The University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 Sydney, Australia
Aircraft Air Quality Malfunction Incidents: Causation, Regulatory, Reporting and Rates C. Winder (u) · S. Michaelis School of Safety Science, The University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 Sydney, Australia
Smoke/fumes in the cockpit. Rayman RB, McNaughton GB.
Principles and Practice – Aviation Medicine – 1939 – Harry G. Armstrong, Medical Corps, Aero Medical Research Laboratory, Air Corps Material Division ).
AEROTOXIC SYNDROME – health effects following exposure to jet oil mist during commercial flight Chris Winder (†} School of Safety Science University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052, Australia – Jean-Christophe Balouet Environment
Journal of biological physics and chemistry – the problem of contaminated aircraft cabin air. Published jointly by Collegium Basilea (Institute of Advanced Study) and Association of Modern Scientific Investigation on 12th december, volume 14number 4. – Erratum Jeremy J. Ramsden
Summary of documents that address potential flight safety impact of exposure to confirmed/suspected oil-contaminated ventilation air on commercial and military aircraft, and supporting documentation J.Andersen
Jet engine oil consumption as a surrogate for measuring chemical contamination in aircraft cabin air Professor Jeremy J.Ramsden
Oil bearing seals and aircraft cabin air contamination – Sealing Technology. April 2016 Michaelis, S. (2016)
Contaminated Aircraft Cabin Air – Journal of Biological Physics and Chemistry. Vol. 11 No 4 12/2011. pp 132-145 Michaelis, S. (2012)
Aircraft air quality malfunction incidents: Design frequency and severity of toxic effects. In: Hocking, M., editor, Air Quality in Airplane Cabins and Similar Enclosed Spaces. Handbook of Environmental Chemistry 4: 249-266 – Best, R., Michaelis, S. (2005)
A Survey of Health Symptoms in BALPA Boeing 757 Pilots – The Journal of Occupational Health and Safety; Australia and New Zealand 19: 253-261 – Michaelis, S. (2003)
A survey of health symptoms in BAe 146 pilots – The Journal of Occupational Health and Safety; Australia and New Zealand 18: 305-312 Cox, L., Michaelis, S. (2002)
“Aviation Contaminated Air Reference Manual”. ISBN 9780955567209 – book – Michaelis, S. (2007)
Autoantibodies to nervous system-specific proteins are elevated in sera of flight crew members: biomarkers for nervous system injury. Abou-Donia MB1, Abou-Donia MM, ElMasry EM, Monro JA, Mulder MF.
Autoantibody markers of neural degeneration are associated with post-mortem histopathological alterations of a neurologically injured pilot M.B. Abou-Donia,1, * F.R.W. van de Goot2 and M .F.A. Mulder
Cognitive impairment and associated loss in brain white microstructure in aircrew members exposed to engine oil fumes. Reneman L1,2, Schagen SB3, Mulder M4, Mutsaerts HJ5, Hageman G4, de Ruiter MB5,3.
Organophosphorus Ester-Induced Chronic Neurotoxicity Abou-Donia MB.:2003, Archives of Environmental Health. 58:484 497
Reaction of Cresyl Saligenin Phosphate, the Organophosphorus Agent Implicated in Aerotoxic Syndrome, with Human Cholinesterases – Carletti et al: Mechanistic Studies Employing Kinetics, Mass Spectrometry, and X-ray Structure Analysis, Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2011, 24, 797–808, 2011
Organophosphate and Amine Contamination of Cockpit Air in the Hawk, F-111 and Hercules C-130 Aircraft. Hanhela P., Kibby J., et al.: DSTO Report, RR-0303. Defence Science and Technology Organization, Melbourne. 2005
“New findings in aircrew exposed to airborne contaminants: Long-term health effects confirmed“ Journal of Occupational Health & Safety, Australia & New Zealand, Vol 21, Number 5, August 2005
Organophosphate Ester Induced Chronic Neurotoxicity (OPICN) Abou-Donia, Mohamed B.:
Lung Injury Following Hydrocarbon Inhalation in BAe 146 Aircrew Burdon, Jonathan MD and Allan R Glanville MD:
Aircraft Air Quality Incidents, Symptoms, Exposures and Possible Solutions Somers Netten van , C.
Assessing over Thirty Flight Crew who have Presented as a Result of Being Unwell after Exposure to Fumes on the BAe 146 Jet – Moira, MD
Health and Flight Safety Implications from Exposure to Contaminated Air in Aircraft, Dissertation Michaelis, S., PhD: Nov. 2010, University of New South Wales, ISBN: 978-0-95-554377-7
Determination of ortho-cresyl phosphate isomers of tricresyl phosphate used in aircraft turbine engine oils by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.Journal of Chromatography – Nola, G. De, J. Kibby1, W. Mazurek: A, 1200 (2008) 211 216 Royal Australian Air Force: Singh B. Aviation Safety Spotlight 0304: In-Flight
Smoke and Fumes, 2004, RA
Effects on Experimental Animals of Long- Term Continuous Inhalation of a Triaryl Phosphate Hydraulic Fluid – 1964, U.S. Navy Toxicology Unit. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 7: 543-549 Solbu, K. (National Institute of Occupational Health, Norwegen):Siegel J., Rudolph H., et al
Organophosphates in aircraft cabin and cockpit air method development and measurements of contaminants, 2011, C Solbu, Daae, Olsen, Thourud et al.: Organophosphates in aircraft cabin and cockpit air, Feb. 2011, Journal of Enviromental Monitoring, DOI: 10.1039/c0em00763c
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Treon, J. F. , Cappel, J. W. , Cleveland, F. P. , Larson, E. E. , Atchley, R. W. and Denham, R. T.: The Toxicity of the Products Formed by the Thermal Decomposition of Certain Organic Substances, 1955, American Industrial Hygiene Association Quarterly, 16: 3, 187 195
AMA CAT (1953) Aviation Toxicology: an Introduction to the Subject and a Handbook of Data. AeroMedical Association Committee of Aviation Toxicology, Blakiston, USA
Tupper CR (1989) Chemical hazards in aeromedical aircraft. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 60:73–75
ASHRAE (1999) Air Quality Within Commercial Aircraft: ASHRAE Standard 161. American Society for Heating, Refrigeration, Airconditioning and Energy, Atlanta
MattieDR, Hoeflich TJ, Jones CE, Horton ML,Whitmire RE, Godin CS, Femming CD, Andesen ME (1993) The comparative toxicity of operational air force hydraulic fluids. Toxicology and Industrial Health 9:995–1016
Winder C, Balouet J-C (2002) Toxic ingredients in commercial jet fuels. Environmental Research 89:146–164 FAA (1965)
Federal Air Regulations, Transport Category Airplanes, Airworthiness Standards, Section 25.831. US Federal Aviation Authority, Washington, DC Balouet J-C, Winder C (1999)
Aerotoxic syndrome in air crew as a result of exposure to airborne contaminants in aircraft. Paper presented at the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) Symposium on Air Quality and Comfort in Airliner Cabins New Orleans, USA, 27-28 October 2000
Winder C, Balouet J-C (2001) Symptoms of irritation and toxicity in aircrew as a result of exposure to airborne chemicals in aircraft. Journal of Occupational Health and Safety – Australian and New Zealand 17:471–483
IPCS (1998) Concise International Chemical Assessment Document No 9: N-Phenyl-1- naphthylamine. International Programme on Chemical Safety, Geneva
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Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of N-Phenyl-2-naphthylamine in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (feed studies). US National Toxicology Program, Aldridge WN (1954)
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Minton NA, Murray VSG (1988) A review of organophosphate poisoning. Medical Toxicology 3:350–375
Johnson MK (1975) Organophosphorus esters causing delayed neurotoxic effects. Archives of Toxicology 34:259–288
Metcalf RL (1982) Historical perspective of organophosphorus ester-induced delayed neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicology 3:269–284
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Johnson MK (1990) Organophosphates and delayed neuropathy–Is NTE alive and well? Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 102:385–399
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Fox R (1997) Air Quality Testing Aboard Ansett Airlines BAe 146 Aircraft: Final Report. Allied Signal Aerospace, 25 November 1997
Craig P, Barth M (1999) Evaluation of the hazards of industrial exposure to tricresyl phosphate: A review and interpretation of the literature. J Toxicology and Environmental Health Part B Critical Reviews 2:281–300. Consultants, Mobil Business resources Coorporation, NJ
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Bobb, A. J. and Still, K. R., “Known Harmful Effects of Constituents of Jet Oil Smoke,” TOXDET- 03-04, Naval Health Research Center Detachment _Toxicology_, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, 2003.
Hanhela, P. J., Kibby, J., DeNola, G., and Mazurek, W., “Organophosphate and Amine Contamination of Cockpit Air in the Hawk F-111, and Hercules C-130 Aircraft,” DSTO-RR- 0303, 2005, Australian Government Department of Defence, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
Harper, A., “A Survey of Health Effects in Aircrew Exposed to Airborne Contaminants,” J. Occup. Health Saf. Aust. N.Z., Vol. 21, No. 5, 2005, pp. 433–439.
Coxon, L., “Neuropsychological Assessment of a Group of BAe146 Aircraft Crewmembers Exposed to Jet Engine Oil Emissions,” J. Occup. Health Saf. Aust. N.Z., Vol. 18, No. 4, 2002, pp. 313–319.
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van Netten, C. and Leung, V., “Comparison of the Constituents of Two Jet Engine Oil Lubricating Oils and Their Volatile Pyrolytic Degradation Products,” Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg., Vol. 15, No. 3, 2000, pp. 277–283. van Netten, C.
“Analysis of Two Jet Engine Lubricating Oils and a Hydraulic Fluid: Their Pyrolytic Breakdown Products and Their Implications on Aircraft Air Quality,” Air Quality and Comfort in Airliner Cabins, ASTM STP 1393, N. L. Nagda, Ed., ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2000, pp. 61–75.
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Orientations sur les pratiques éducatives, de formation et de compte rendu concernant les émanations Orientations sur les pratiques éducatives, de formation et de compte rendu concernant les émanations (Numéro de commande : CIR 344 ISBN 978-92-9249-873-3 ). – ICAO
BALPA 2005 http://bleedfree.eu/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/balpa-capc-april-2005.pdf
EXPERTS (alphabetical order)
- Professor M. Abou Donia, professor of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology
- Jean-Christophe BALOUET, Ph. D. environmental forensics
- Dr. Jonathan Burdon AM, Consultant Respiratory Physician
- Professor Clement Furlong, Research Professor of Medicine and Genome Sciences, University of Washington
- Mr. David Gee, Visiting Fellow, Institute of Environment, Health and Societies – Brunel University
- Ass. Prof. Dr. Astrid Heutelbeck, University Medical Center Göttingen, Germany
- Professor Vyvyan Howard, Professor of Pathology (Toxicology) – University of Ulster
- Dr. Susan Michaelis PhD, MSc – University of Stirling/Health and Safety Consultant. Mr. John Morton – Chairman, European Sealing Association
- Michel Mulder MD, medical doctor specializing in aviation medicine
- Dr. Mark Montgomery – Toxicologist
- Professor Chris van Netten, Environmental Toxicology (Emeritus) – University of British Columbia
- Dr. Vincent Peynet, Directeur Institut de Recherche et d’Expertise
- Professor Jeremy Ramsden – honorary professor of Nanotechnology, University of Buckingham, UK
- Professor Dr. Ing. Dieter Scholz, MSME – Aircraft Design and Systems Group (AERO) – Hamburg University of Applied Sciences
- Professor Colin Soskolne, Department of Public Health Sciences – Collegium Ramazzini and University of Alberta
- Dr. Alvin V. Terry Jr. PhD, Chairman, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology – Augusta University
- Professor Chris Winder († 2014), professor in applied Toxicology and Occupational Health and Safety at the University of New South Wales (UNSW)